Atoms

Here, we demonstrate that the vacuum-speed of light is reachable only in the single state of matter, on the boundary between the atomic and nuclear quantum states of matter.

The adjustable speed of light

The title of this example would be probably treated by the most conservative traditional scientists as a pure heresy. They would argue that alone the idea of an adjustment of something so strongly unchangeable as their cherished „vacuum"-speed of light could not be serious. It is exactly why I am treating this point as one of the typical problems testing the readiness of the modern technologists to practical work with the nanoscale technologies. If you are a modern technologist, you have to discard a lot of such unreasonable dogmas of the traditional physics (as discused on the Naturics website; www.naturics.de). Keeping the traditional ballast in your mind, you have a little prospect of success in any nanoscale technology.

The success of our nanoscience gives us a strong evidence for our point of view. The speed of light in any material depends on the physical state of this material. The table below shows some typical values of these speed c, together with the corresponding characteristic temperature T for the chosen classes of the quanta of matter.

Material-dependent speed of light

Diameter r Speed c Temperature T The class of quanta
4.4 nm 30 km/s 280 K large molecules
440 pm 300 km/s 2.8 kK small molecules
44 pm 3.0 Mm/s 28 kK large atoms
4.4 pm 30 Mm/s 280 kK small atoms
440 fm 300 Mm/s 2.8 MK vacuum*
44 fm 3.0 Gm/s*** 28 MK large nuclei
4.4 fm 30 Gm/s*** 280 MK proton**

* --- the boundary between the class of the smallest atoms and the largest atomic nuclei.
** -- the smallest atomic nucleus.
*** - Note that the nuclear physics has no possibility to reach a full success as long as it accepts the „vacuum” speed of light for the whole nuclear matter (compare also the next example in this category).

Note that the above table explains also the very high temperature of the solar corona, the faint halo of the cosmic "gas" around the Sun, which can be seen at solar eclipses or through a coronagraph. This is exactly the place where the "vacuum" of the interplanetary space begins for the solar quanta of energy in their "journey" from inside to the outside of the Sun.