**Quantum period creates spirituality, quantum area creates materiality; their simple product is quantum mass**

*Abstract*

The continuous evidence of some fundamental dualities in Nature suggests that also the undermost base of our physics, our scientific description of Nature, can be understood as a duality between the two main components of our reality, spirit and matter. This fundamental duality has to be found already on the level of a single quantum element of our world. As the eastern ancients teach us, such a fundamental duality cannot be realized as opposite polarity, but rather as a partnership originating from some unifying entity.

In the Unified Physics, our unified description of Nature, this unifying entity is the original creative potential, termed Unified Unity, situated at the center of the dynamical plane of the Unified Family of all physical quantities. The two partner-components of the description are the spiritual axis of time and the material axis of dimension. In our reality, there is no existence without some temporal (spiritual) component, without a quantum period, and there is no experience without some extended (material) component, without a quantum area. The whole observable Universe is a result of a quantized creation from the creating potential of the Universal Unity. The creation is never ending. And all creatures (including us as well as the stars and galaxies) are also co-creators of the Universe.

**Wave-Particle Duality**

Already quarter of a century ago, when preparing my first article concerning the Unified Physics [*P. Jakubowski, „Equivalence of Electrodynamics with Dynamics“, Physics Essays, Vol.3, No.2, 1990, p.156-160*], I became aware of the fact that the so-called quantum „wave-particle duality“[*„Wave-particle duality“, Wikipedia*] is just an experimental manifestation of the intrinsic duality of the very nature of our quantized world, which cannot be „solved or removed“ theoretically. I have used in this work the mathematical statement that any physical vector field may be divided into a source field (vortex-free field) and a vortex field (source-free field). These two components are not separable from each other.

I have also understood that the electromagnetic field has always its two components, the vortex-free electric field and the source-free magnetic field. We have to use some very specific reference frame, if we want to observe just only the electric field or only the magnetic field. The simplest consequence of this mathematical rule is the absence in Nature of any magnetic monopoles (the single sources of the magnetic field) and any electric vortices (the separately circulating elements of an electric field).

Despite of this obvious conclusion, there are still physicists looking for the magnetic monopoles. In the Introduction to the paper by Canadian physicist James Pinfold [*J.L. Pinfold, „Dirac’s Dream – the Search for the Magnetic Monopole“*], we read for example:

„In 1864 the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell published the 19th-century equivalent of a grand unified theory, which encompassed the separate electric and magnetic forces into a single electromagnetic force []. Maxwell banished isolated magnetic charges from his four equations because no isolated magnetic pole had ever been observed. This brilliant simplification, however, led to asymmetric equations, which called for the aesthetically more attractive symmetric theory that would result if a magnetic charge did exist. Thirty years later, Pierre Curie looked into the possibility of free magnetic charges and found no grounds why they should not exist, although he added that it would be bold to deduce that such objects therefore existed [].

Paul Dirac, in a paper published 1931, proved that the existence of the magnetic monopole was consistent with quantum theory [3]. In this paper he showed that the existence of the magnetic monopole not only symmetrized Maxwell’s equations, but also explained the quantization of electric charge. To Dirac the beauty of mathematical reasoning and physical argument were instruments for discovery that, if used fearlessly, would lead to unexpected but valid conclusions. Perhaps the single contribution that best illustrates Dirac’s courage is his work on the magnetic monopole. Today, magnetic-monopole solutions are found in many modern theories such as grand unified theories, string theory and M-theory. The big mystery is, where are they?“

We can answer this question now: Nowhere! Magnetic monopoles cannot exist, because any magnetic field is the source-free component of the vectorial electromagnetic field.

So, what should the wave-particle duality teach us about the reality? The best answer to this question I have found on Internet has been given by Australian physicist Tim Davis [*Tim Davis, „Explainer: what is wave-particle duality“*] (the reference warmly recommended not only for physicists). In his explanation of the electron diffraction we read:

„The bizarre thing about the diffraction experiment is the electron wave doesn’t deposit energy over the entire surface of the detector, as you might expect with a wave crashing on the shore.

The energy of the electron is deposited at a point, just as if it was a particle. So while the electron propagates through space like a wave, it interacts at a point like a particle. This is known as wave-particle duality. …

This is what happens with photons, electrons and even atom waves. Naturally enough, this conundrum upset a lot of scientists, Einstein included. It is usually swept under the carpet and glibly referred to as „the collapse of the wavefunction“ on measurement. …

And as for reality? I think Professor Feynman has the last word on that one, too: “ … the paradox is only a conflict between reality and your feeling of what reality ought to be.”

**Other Dualities**

A very wide discussion of other dualities in ancient philosophy and modern science can be found in the book by Ervin Laszlo and Jude Currivan [*Ervin Laszlo and Jude Currivan, „CosMos; A Co-creator’s Guide to the Whole-World“, Hay House, 2008*]. On page 43, we read there:

„The intrinsic reflections of „dualities“ that are not separate but complementary aspects of each other abound in Nature. They find their expressions in the relationship of space and time itself, such fundamental polarities as the wave/particles of quantum entities and the generic attributes of passive yin and active yang principles throughout our universe.

The ancients understood that the seed of one complement emerges from the full expression of the other in an ongoing relationship. Sometimes this can be discerned, but in other circumstances, such relationships are subtle or hidden. Until very recently, this has been the view of quantum physicists in regard to what they have termed quantum „wave-particle duality“. Some 80 years ago, physicist Niels Bohr stated the principle that these two attributes cannot both be perceived at the same time; with regard to a quantum of light, for example, it acts as a wave or it acts as a particle.

In 2004, physicist Shahrair Afshar undertook an experiment that challenged quantum theory and Bohr’s contention and caused uproar within the physics community. What Afshar did was to design a special type of the so-called double-slit experiment that had originally showed that light has both wavelike and particle-like properties. However, Afshar’s experiment, which he revised and repeated in 2006, enables both the particle and the wave aspects of light to be perceived together, as it measures the path of photons (particles of light) while at the same time showing up their wavelike interference patterns.“

And on page 37, we can follow the unbelievable wisdom of the ancient philosophers:

„The Taoist philosophers of ancient China saw the world as arising from the sundering of unity into the universal polarities they termed yin and yang. With profound insight, they depicted the universal symbol for yin and yang as being complementary rather than opposing principles. And ever emerging from within the outgoing expression of yang and the inward expression of yin – the cosmic male and female – is the immanent presence of its partner. As did another ancient wisdom teachings, the Taoists recognized the the innate tension between this dual relationship and sought resolution within a third aspect, the balance of the two. In the symbol of yin/yang, this is accomplished by the wave that flows between them. And it is on this flowing threshold between light and shadow, positive and negative, that co-creativity is realized.

The Vedic sages of ancient India perceived the same dance of creation even more explicitly, considering all phenomena to arise from a trinity of interweaving cosmic forces they called gunas. These and many other spiritual traditions have understood that it is the interplay of such cosmic principles wherein lies the deep mystery of existence and experience. All these wisdom teachings comprehend the universe as an interrelated whole, within which the relationship of these ever-changing and yet eternal principles underlie the explorations of our consciousness.“

And finally continuing on p. 44:

„The Chinese sages perceived the innate presence of a third cosmic principle through which the co-creative expression of yin and yang is resolved and expressed. It is the three-in-one of this universal trinity through which form and phenomena are co-created.“

**The Unified Family of all physical quantities**

The continuous evidence of some fundamental dualities in Nature suggests that also the undermost base of our physics, our scientific description of Nature, can be understood as a duality between the two main components of our reality, spirit and matter. This fundamental duality has to be found already on the level of a single quantum element of our world. As the eastern ancients teach us, such a fundamental duality cannot be realized as opposite polarity, but rather as a partnership originating from some unifying entity.

In the Unified Physics, our unified description of Nature, this unifying entity is the original creative potential, termed Unified Unity, situated in the center of the dynamical plane of the Unified Family of all physical quantities. The two partner-components of the description are the spiritual axis of time and the material axis of dimension. In our reality there is no existence without some temporal (spiritual) component, without a quantum period, and there is no experience without some extended (material) component, without a quantum area. The whole observable Universe is a result of a quantized creation from the creating potential of the Universal Unity. The creation is never ending. And all creatures (including us as well as stars and galaxies) are also co-creators of the Universe.

We are beginning our construction with nothing more than the single quantity, the Universal Unity, seemingly lost in nothingness in the center of our reference-frame plane.

Nevertheless, it is the mightiest physical quantity I have ever thought of. It it the majestic potential to create everything else, the creative potential of our Universe.

At first, it creates his own two components. One of them is exclusively material, allowing us to create all possible objects (quantized creatures). Owing to this aspect of the creative potential, all these creatures obtain their original quantum form and size.

The second component of the universal creative potential is exclusively spiritual, allowing all those quantized creatures to exist, what means, to survive for at least one period of their quantum (circulating) time.

These two components of the creative universal potential are not competing against each other, they are co-operating, creating the Universe in a partnership. A pure existence possibility without any material objects to exist is as unrealistic as a pure material forms never being allowed to exist, that means with their “life time” shortened to zero.

We have put the quantum time and the quantum size directly next to the Universal Unity along the corresponding axes of our reference frame. Now, at the opposite site along each axis we can place the reciprocal physical quantities of the dimension r and the time t. They are called wave vector k and frequency f, respectively. However, it is important to understand that these two additional quantities (as well as all other physical quantities) are not more some new components of the original creative potential. They are just mathematical constructions introduced by scientists during the long ages of our desperate efforts for understanding of the Universe and our role in it.

The reciprocal quantum time (the quantum frequency f), is necessary for our physical construction of the Universe, because it is a convenient way to define the probably best known physical quantity, the quantum speed c. As noted in the picture above, the quantum speed c is defined as the product of the quantum frequency f and the quantum dimension r, c = f * r.

Note that it is our first physical equation created directly from the Universal Unity.

Let us prepare some place for the other physical quantities. A simple multiplication of the Universal Unity with the material and spiritual potentials, r and t, and their reciprocal quantities, k and f, directly leads to the physical quantities shown in the following diagram.

Do the new physical quantities seem to be unknown to you? Not really, as we demonstrate immediately on the next diagram. What seems unknown, are just the somewhat nonconventional names of these new physical quantities, r², r³, k², k³, and so on. On second thougth we recognize most of them. We see that r² is just the quantum area A, r³ is quantum volume V, k² equals the quantum Laplacian Δ , and k³ is simply a quantum spatial density.

However, we have to admit that some of the new rules shown below are nonconventional in the traditional physics. For example, why should the quantum volume V be equivalent with the quantum impulse p? Before we answer this question, let us see that if it is really the case, we directly obtain the first physical equation, whose discoverer, Louis de Broglie, has been honoured with the Nobel Prize in physics 1929: quantum impulse p of a quantum particle equals the quantum action J (in the traditional version simply considered as the Planck’s constant) times the wave vector of the particle.

This means that the quantum action J should be the quantum dimension r in the fourth power, r4, indeed. It was the most fundamental discovery of the Unified Family with regard to the numerical unification of all physical constants. According to this relation, the Planck’s constant is equivalent to the fourth power of the universal size of all quanta in our Universe. It is an invaluable general information about our Universe. The basic quanta have a size of about 5 nanometers, exactly at the boundary between the living and not-living worlds.

So why can we put the equivalence: the impulse of a quantum equals its volume (in our unified time-space), p = V = r³?

Let us formulate another intriguing question at first: Which property of the Universe do we create if we combine the material property, the quantum area A with its spiritual property, the quantum period t? It is probably the most important discovery of the Unified Family of all physical quantities. The simple product of these both properties exactly results in that quantity which our scientific fathers have termed mass and abbreviated with m: A * t = t * A = m.

This observation solves the old mystery of mass, one of the greatest mysteries of the ancient philosophy and the modern science; What is mass? The mass of a quantum object with a size A is a measure of its potential for existence on this area, t * A. or reversely, the mass of a quantum object with a characteristic period t is a measure of its potential for extension during this period, A * t.

Of course, this discovery has very profound consequences for the whole unification of our physical knowledge about Nature. Some of these consequences are collected in the following extension of the previous diagram.

First of all, we see that the quantum impulse p, being a product of the quantum mass m and the quantum characteristic velocity c, is really an equivalent quantity to the quantum volume V; V = r³ = p = m * c.

Next we see where the energy W finds its place in our Unified Family. (Note here, that we have to use the symbol W, from work, for the unified quantum energy, because its “standard” symbol E should be reserved for the unified quantum electric field, which has not an alternative abbreviation for itself.) And we immediately “re-discover” the equations by Planck and Einstein, combining the energy W with the quantum of action J (through frequency f), W = J * f, and with the quantum mass m (through the quantum speed squared c²), W = m * c².

I think, it should not be a problem to understand the following completion of the Unified Family of all physical quantities, as described in the next categories of this Open Science Academy educational blog.